These points may be simple natural repetitions, like the sun rising daily, the movement of summer to spring, or the elements of tragedy, which Deleuze suggests operate cyclically. There is a sense of both destiny and theology in the concept of time as a circle, as a succession of instants which are governed by an external law. When time is considered in this fashion, Deleuze argues DRrepetition is solely concerned with habit. The subject experiences the passing of moments cyclically the sun will come up every morninggilles deleuze architecture contracts gilles deleuze architecture which make sense of time as a continually living present.
Habit is thus the passive synthesis of moments that creates a subject. The second model of time is linked by Deleuze to Kant KCP vii-viiiand it constitutes one of the central ruptures that the Kantian philosophy creates in thought, for Deleuze: In the Critique of Pure ReasonKant liberates time from the circular model by proposing it as a form that is imposed upon sensory gilles deleuze architecture.
For Deleuze, this reverses the earlier situation by placing events into time as a linerather than seeing the gilles deleuze architecture of events constituting time by the passing of present moments. Habit can thus no longer have any power, since in this model of time, nothing returns. In order for sense to be made of what has occurred, there must be an active process of synthesis, which makes of the past instances a meaning DR Deleuze calls this second synthesis memory.
Unlike habit, memory does not relate to a present, but to a past which has never been present, since it synthesises from passing moments a form in-itself of things which never existed before the operation.
The novels of Marcel Proust are for Deleuze the most profound development of memory as the pure past, or in Proust's terminology, as time regained. DR ; PS passim. In this second model of time, repetition thus has an active sense in line with the synthesis, since it repeats something, in the memory, that did not exist before - this does not save it, however, from being an operation of identity, nonetheless.
These two moments, the active constitution of a pure past, and the disparate experience of a present yet to be synthesised produces a further consequence for Deleuze: DR ; KCP viii-ix. Deleuze insists that both of these models of time press repetition into the service of the identical, and make it a secondary process with regards to time. The gilles deleuze architecture model of time gilles deleuze architecture Deleuze proposes attempts to make repetition itself the form of time.
In order to do this, Deleuze relates the concepts of difference and gilles deleuze architecture to each other. If difference is the essence of that which exists, constituting beings as disparates, then neither of the first two models of time does justice to them, insisting as they do on the possibility and even necessity of synthesising differences into identities.
It is only engenharia química guia do estudante beings are repeated as something other that their disparateness is revealed. Consequently, repetition cannot be understood as a repetition of the same, and becomes liberated from subjugation under the demands of traditional philosophy.
To give body to the conception of repetition as the pure form of time, Deleuze turns to the Nietzschean concept of the eternal return. This difficult concept is always given a forceful and careful qualification by Deleuze whenever he writes about it eg. As a form of time, the eternal return is not the circle of habit, even on the cosmic level.
This would only allow the return of something that already existed, gilles deleuze architecture, of the same, and would result again in the suppression of difference through an inadequate concept of repetition. While habit returned the same in each instance, and memory dealt with the creation of identity in order to allow experience to be remembered, the eternal return is, for Deleuze, only the repetition of that which differs-from-itself, or, in Nietzsche's terminology, only the repetition of those beings whose being is becoming: As such, Deleuze tells us, repetition as the third meaning of time takes the form of the eternal return.
Everything that exists as a unity will not return, only that which differs-from-itself. So, while habit was the time of the present, and memory the being of the past, repetition as the eternal return is the time of the future. The superiority of this third understanding of repetition as time has two main impetuses in Reguas para desenho tecnico argument.
The first is obviously that it keeps difference intact in its movement of differing-from-itself. The second is as significant, if for different reasons. If only what differs returns, then the eternal return operates selectively DR ; PIand this selection is an affirmation of difference, rather than an activity of representation and unification based on the negative, as in Hegel.
Chapter three of Difference and Repetition provides a novel approach to an important question in philosophy, the problem of presuppositions. Deleuze pursues this topic again later in A Thousand Plateausand when he writes about conceptual personae in What is Philosophy? An example is Descartes' celebrated phrase at the beginning of the Discourse on the Method:. Good sense is the most evenly shared thing in the world.
For Descartes, thought has a natural gilles deleuze architecture towards truth, just as for Plato, the intellect is naturally drawn towards reason and recollects the true nature of that which exists.
This, for Deleuze, is an image of thought.
Although images of thought take the common form of an 'Everybody knows. Rather, they operate on the level of the social and the unconscious, and function, "all the more effectively in silence. Deleuze undertakes a thorough analysis of the traditional philosophical image of thought, and lists eight features which, in all aspects of philosophical pursuit, imply a subordination of thought to externally imposed directives.
He includes the good nature of thought, the priority of the model or recognition as the means of thought, the sovereignty of representation over supposed elements in nature and thought, and the subordination of culture to method or learning to knowledge.
These all imply an a priori nature of thought, a telos, a meaning and a logic of gilles deleuze architecture. It is this element, in Difference and Repetitionthat founds Deleuze's most serious criticism of the traditional image of thought: As a result, it is fair to say that this moment of the book is essential for understanding the way in which Deleuze both wants to base his assessment of traditional philosophies of identity and time, and how he wishes to exceed them: The other critical angle Deleuze supplies here is related to the first, and derives from Nietzsche's critique of Western thought:.
When Nietzsche questions the most general presuppositions of philosophy, he says that these are essentially moral, since Morality alone is capable of convincing us that thought has a good nature and the thinker a good will, and that only the good can ground the supposed affinity between thought and the True. As we gilles deleuze architecture above regarding Hegel, the real point of concern is that this image of thought is in the service of practical, political and moral forces, it is not simply a matter of philosophy, in segregation from the rest of the world.
To the question 'why do we have this image of thought? In contradistinction to the natural goodness of thought in the traditional image, Deleuze argues for thought as an encounter: The traditional image of thought has developed, just as Nietzsche argues about the development of morality in The Genealogy of Moralsas a reaction to the threat that these encounters offer. We can consider the traditional image of thought, then, precisely as a symptom of the repression of this violence. As a result, the relationship of philosophy to thought must have two correlative aspects, Deleuze argues:.
This is true, dangerous thought, but the sole thought capable of approaching difference-in-itself and complex repetition: The thought which is born in thought, the act of thinking which is neither given by innateness nor presupposed by reminiscence but engendered in its genitality, is a thought without image.
But what is such a thought, and how does it operate in the world? This final question directs us towards the central aim of the two texts of Capitalism and Schizophrenia. The collaborative texts of Deleuze and Felix Guattari, particularly the two volumes of Capitalism and Schizophreniaare outside of the scope of the current article see the Deleuze and Guattari entry in this encyclopaedia, forthcoming. However, two brief points are important to note.
First, that despite the wide notoriety of these works as obscurantist and non-philosophical, they bear a profound relation to Deleuze's philosophical enterprise in general, and erros de medicação na enfermagem in new ways many of his concerns: Secondly, the manner in which these texts are written by the two writers, between the two and not seperately, means that many new elements emerge that cannot be drawn from their work individually.
As such, regarding Deleuze, many of the central ideas cited above do undergo an interesting and novel transformation into a new direction: Deleuze's work on the arts, he never ceases to remind the reader, are not to be understood as literary criticism, film or art theory.
Talking of the 's, during which he wrote almost exclusively on the arts, he states the following:. But I was writing philosophy. This accords with the aims of Deleuze's empiricism see 3 abovegilles deleuze architecture understand philosophy as an encounter with gilles deleuze architecture work, philosophical or artistic, an object, a person out of which "non-pre-existent concepts," DR vii can be created.
Regarding his books on cinema, he is even more explicit:. Film criticism faces twin dangers: The job of criticism is to form concepts that aren't of course 'given' in films but nonetheless relate specifically to cinema, and to some specific genre of film, to some specific film or other. Concepts specific to cinema, but which can only be formed philosophically. N 58; C2 All of Deleuze's work on livros de conquista e sedução can be gilles deleuze architecture under the rubric of the creation of new philosophical concepts that relate specifically to the work at hand, yet which also link these works with others more generally.
Not a philosophy of the arts per se, but a philosophical encounter with specific artistic works and forms. One feature that the artistic works also contain, distinct from many of Deleuze's other books, is a concern with a taxonomy of signs.
In Proust and SignsFrancis Baconand the Cinema books, Deleuze attempts to develop a systematic approach of classifying different signs. These signs are not linguistic C1 ixsince they are not themselves elements of a system, but rather are types of emissions from a work. Proust, for example, on Deleuze's account, understands experience itself as a reception of signs by a proto-subject which must be understood properly, just as the large variety of images discussed in Cinema 1 and 2 are categorised by Deleuze on the basis of C.
Deleuze often comes to consider the questions 'what is the direitos civis e politicos gilles deleuze architecture the artist, and of art? This characterisation goes far beyond the general consideration of artists as 'creative people', and highlights the manner in which art is itself a creation of movement, not of representations: While the dominant Western tradition, from Plato to Heidegger, places art in a relationship to gilles deleuze architecture, Deleuze insists in every case on a Nietzschean argument NPthat the work of art gilles deleuze architecture has relations with forces, and that truth is a derivative, secondary formation: In another register, Deleuze suggests that artists are themselves created, within thought, and must be cultured and afflicted by forces which exceed them to develop to the point of creativity NP ; cf.
These forces, in turn, account for the frequent frailty of artists and thinkers. While the work of art sets to work forces of life, the artist themselves has experienced "too much", and this wearies and sickens them D 18; C2 Deleuze's insistences that the artist is above all someone who creates new ways of being and perceiving increases in frequency and strength throughout the course of his texts on art and artists.
Deleuze wrote extensively on literature throughout his career. Towards a Minor Literatureand a large portion of The Logic of Sense to Lewis Carroll, he also dealt in some detail with a wide range of figures such as F.
It is quite easy, if one wishes to attach a philosophical point of view to Marcel Proust's work, to see it as a phenomenology of memory and perception, in which his famous gilles deleuze architecture In Search of Lost Time would be oriented towards an understanding of what underlies and gives substance to experience and memory. In essence, Deleuze proposes the opposite of the phenomenological method.
He reads Proust's work as an anti-logos, that supposes, rather than a transcendental ego which is the necessary feature of all experience, a passive, receptive subject at the mercy of the signs and symptoms of the world.
For what does in fact take place in Gilles deleuze architecture Search of Lost Timeone and the same story with infinite variations? It is clear that the narrator sees nothing, hears nothing. Rather than memory, the central question of the Searchbeing based within the subject, gilles deleuze architecture, and as the product of certain transcendental operations, it is a creation of something which did not exist before by way of an original, each-time unique, style of interpretation for experiences PS Deleuze uses the term 'anti-logos' on the grounds that Proust, as he argues, refuses the representational model of experience central to Western philosophy:.
Everywhere Proust contrasts the world of signs and symptoms with the world of attributes, the world of hieroglyphs and ideograms with the world of analytic expression, phonetic writing, and rational thought. What is constantly impugned are the great themes inherited from the Gilles deleuze architecture In contrast, Deleuze characterises the Search as a recasting of thought: Masoch features in a few of Deleuze's books K ; Dbut most significantly in his long study "Coldness and Cruelty".
This early text is a critique of the unity of the clinical and aesthetic notion "sado-masochism". Deleuze argues here that this clinical concept fails to account for the actual writings of the Maquis de Sade and Sacher-masoch, along with making an unjustified unity from a two quite distinct groups of symptoms. Masoch is considered by Deleuze to be an important writer of unusual power, and a master of suspense, the key literary element of masochism. However, while de Sade has become well-known, and his writings analysed, Deleuze suggests that our poor understanding of Masoch's texts is one of clínica de fonoaudiologia main culprits in making the confused unity that is sadomasochism.
In fact, according to Gilles deleuze architecture, he offers us a new way of understanding existence by displacing sexuality into the world of power M Thus, Deleuze tells us, Masoch was in fact, "a great anthropologist. Point by point, Deleuze develops a reading of the two writers, Masoch in particular, that shows their profound disparity. Alongside this is an analysis of the psychiatric categories of sadism and masochism that reveals the same lack of common ground.
Sadomasochism is one of these misbegotten names, a semiological howler. We found in every case that what appeared to be a common 'sign' linking the two perversions together turned out on investigation to be in the nature of a mere syndrome which could be further broken down into irreducibly specific symptoms of the one or the other perversion.
In "Coldness and Cruelty", Deleuze also elaborates a atacado de artigos para festa of Freud that points in the direction of Anti-Oedipusalthough clearly more limited in scope.
In many ways, it can be read as a development of the same themes in regard to Kafka's work. This text is a marked departure from all of the dominant interpretations of Kafka's writing, which is generally considered either psychoanalytically as a projection gilles deleuze architecture interior guilt onto the world through writing or mythically, that is, as a reserve of symbols and closely related to negative theology and Jewish mysticism.
Deleuze and Guattari consider Kafka as a proponent gilles deleuze architecture a joyful science, of writing as a way of creating a line of flight or freedom from the forms of domination. The three worst themes in many interpretations of Kafka are the transcendence of the law, the interiority of guilt, the subjectivity of enunciation.
In contrast, Deleuze and Guattari read Kafka as a proponent of the immanence of desire. The law is no more than a secondary configuration that traps desire into certain formations: The judges, commissioners, bureaucrats, and so on, are not substitutes for the father; rather, it is the father who is a condensation of all these forces that he submits to and that he tries to get his son to submit to.
Thus, for Kafka, according to Deleuze and Guattari, the family are a socially derived unit that works by trapping the flow of desire. The interiority of guilt is replaced by the exteriority of subjugation.
This is best demonstrated in the analysis of Kafka's famous short story, The Metamorphosis K They also wish to read Kafka, not as a writer of genius, who expresses the superior insight of his inner sight, but as a writer of minor literature. This is the key concept of Deleuze and Guattari's reading of Kafka. Minor literature is a writing that takes a dominant language German, in Kafka's case, French in Beckett's, and so forthand pushes it until it becomes a language of force, and not of signification K In turn, this connects immediately with the situation of minorities, minority groups in the first instance, but also the attempts that everyone makes to create a line of flight outside of majoritarian or molar social formations.
As such, minor literature is an immediately political writing K 17which connects the text immediately to micro- political struggle. Thus the third substitution is the collective, that is, political, nature of enunciation, for the traditional model of the subjective intent behind the author's words.
Kafka, for Deleuze and Guattari, writes as a node in a field of forces, rather than a Cartesian cogito, sovereign in the castle of consciousness.
One clear feature of Deleuze's relationship to literature is his outspoken appreciation for what he calls Anglo-American literature, and its superiority over the literature of Europe. What we find in great English and American novelists is a gift, rare among the French, for intensities, flows, machine-books, tool-books, schizo-books.
The great European tradition in literature is analogous for Deleuze to traditional philosophy: The strength of Anglo-american literature for Deleuze is rather that it rejects the idea of the book as a representation of reality, and all of the adjacent problems with the dogmatic image of literature, and presents the book as a machine, as something which does things, rather than signifying. Part of the reason for the impact of Deleuze's writings on cinema is simply that he is the first important philosopher to have devoted such detailed attention to it.
Of course, many philosophers have written about movies, but Deleuze offers an analysis of the cinema itself as an artistic form, and develops a number of connections between it and other philosophical work. Deleuze's first lean manufacturing ferramentas is entitled Cinema 1: It deals with cinema from its development through to the second World War. For Deleuze, the cinema as an art form is quite unique, and deals with its subject matter in ways that no other form of art is capable of, particularly as a way of gilles deleuze architecture to the experience of space and time.
Deleuze's analysis begins by coming to new understandings of the concepts of the image and movement. The image, gilles deleuze architecture, above all, is not a representation of something, that is, a linguistic sign. This definition relies upon the age-old Platonic distinction between form and matter, in its modern Saussurean form of signifier-signified. Rather, Deleuze wants to collapse these two orders into one, and the image thus becomes expressive and affective: This collapse comes about with reference to two philosophers, gilles deleuze architecture, Henri Bergson and Charles Sanders Peirce, gilles deleuze architecture.
Deleuze dedicated a book-length study to the former entitled Bergsonismand his use of gilles deleuze architecture notions of movement and time in the Cinema texts is already presaged by this text. Movement for Bergson, Deleuze argues, is not separable from the object which moves: Thus, no representative relationship can be established without artificially halting the flow of movement webmail dpf policia federal thus misconstruing the frozen 'element' as self-sufficient.
There is only the flow of movement which expresses itself in different ways. Among other things, this is one of Deleuze's critiques of phenomenology C1 56, Thus the early cinema is characterised for Deleuze by the reign of what he calls the sensory-motor schema. This schema is the unity of the viewed and the eye that views in dynamic movement. This model of the movement-image is precisely the nature of cinema, for Deleuze. It does not falsify movement by extracting segments and stringing them together in a representative fashion, but creates a wide range of expressive images.
It is in order to come to terms with the varieties of movement-images that Deleuze turns to Peirce, who developed, "the most extraordinary classifications of images and signs. The main part of Cinema 1 is thus devoted to using, with some alterations, Peirce's semiotic classifications to describe the use of movement-images in cinema, and their centrality before the second World War.
The movement from the first text to Cinema 2: The Time-Image has a significance closely related to Kant's so-called Copernican revolution in gilles deleuze architecture. Up until Kant, time was subject to the events that took place within it, time was a time of seasons and habitual repetition see 3 c above ; it was not able ouvir musicas no letras be considered on its own, but as a measure of movement C2 ; KCP iv.
One element of Kant's achievement for Deleuze, as we have seen, is his reversal of the time-movement relationship: In the cinema, Gilles deleuze architecture argues, a similar reversal takes place. The historico-cultural reason behind this reversal is the event of World War two itself. With the great truths of Western culture put so deeply in question by the before unimaginable methods employed and their forthcoming results, the sensory-motor apparatus of the cursos publicidade e pr are made to tremble before the unbearable, the too-much of life's possibilities, the potential of the present C2 No longer could the dogmatic truths that had guided society, and cinema to an extent, allow the apparently 'natural' movement from one thing to the next in an habitual fashion: And with the use of unnatural or false links, which do not follow the sequence or narrative affect gilles deleuze architecture the movement-image, time itself, the time-image, is manifested in cinema Deleuze considers Orson Welles to be the first auteur to make use of the time-image C2 Rather than finding time as an, "indirect representation," C2the viewer experiences the movement of time itself, which images, scenes, plots and characters presuppose or manifest in order to gain any sort of movement whatsoever.
Along with this 'external' reason, there is also for Deleuze a motivation within cinema itself tecnicas para desenho go from the movement-image to the time-image.
The movement image has the tendency, thanks to the habitual experience of movement as normal exame oab rs centered, to justify itself in relation to truth: Of course, Deleuze suggests, cinema, when truly creative, never relied upon this presupposition, and yet, "the movement-image, in its very essence, is answerable to the effect of truth which it invokes while movement preserves its centres.
In questioning its own presuppositions, Deleuze argues, cinema moved towards a new, different, way gilles deleuze architecture understanding movement itself, as subordinate to time. This in turn leads Deleuze to abandon Peirce's semiotics to a large degree, since it has no room for the time-image C2 ff.
As we have seen in our consideration especialidade acampamento 1 time in Difference and Repetition see 3 c aboveNietzsche is the philosopher who Deleuze considers to have made the crucial move with regard to time, surpassing even Kant.
One of the central consequences for cinema that this move from movement-image to time-image makes again highlights one of Deleuze's central concerns, to establish an ontology and a semiology of force: There remain bodies, which are forces, nothing but forces. Scenes, movements and language become expressive rather than representative. Deleuze's central work in the visual arts is his monograph Francis Bacon: TP ; WP ch.
Deleuze's book on Francis Bacon, as the title suggests, is an attempt to construct a logic of sensations from the artist's work FB 7. This task is largely a taxonomic one. Deleuze develops, throughout the book, a number of key categorial notions and new concepts that allow him to move away from the standard representational view of painting, towards a painting of force, that presents gilles deleuze architecture and creates affects sensations rather than representing or describing a scene.
Three central ideas are at work. The first is an elaboration of the concept of Figure. For Deleuze, while the idea of figuration in painting has largely been representational, he sees Bacon, and to some extent Cezanne before him FB 40, 76collapsing the Figure into the world of forces, placing it in a new relation to force.
Thus Bacon's cries, for which he is famous, place the figure in the presence of force: For Deleuze the cry expresses an extreme moment of life, rather than suffering or horror.
As with Kafka, Deleuze takes Bacon's artistic work, is commonly considered very dark and nihilistic, and considers it as a gilles deleuze architecture sign of life, and of struggle with death. The second, a refrain familiar from all of his work, relates to a notion of force that makes it ontologically and artistically fundamental rather than politically oppressive, much as desire is reconfigured in Capitalism and Schizophrenia. Gilles deleuze architecture is in fact this move that allows Deleuze's general gilles deleuze architecture towards Bacon, as we have just seen: We have already seen the significance of empiricism for Deleuze's philosophy 3 above.
Throughout his work, however, Deleuze gives a number of further formulations concerning the proposta para patrocinio and nature of philosophy. These can be understood in two phases, an termo de assunção de dívida critical naturalism and a later vitalist constructivism.
In his early works in the history of philosophy, gilles deleuze architecture with The Logic of SenseDeleuze expresses an essentially critical model of philosophy. In his book on Nietzsche, he writes:.
When someone asks 'what's the use of philosophy? Philosophy does not serve the State or the Church, gilles deleuze architecture, who have other concerns. It serves no established power.
The use of philosophy is to sadden. A philosophy which saddens no one, that annoys no one, is not a philosophy. It is useful for harming stupidity, for turning stupidity into something shameful. Its only use is the exposure of all forms of baseness of thought. Philosophy is at its most positive as a critique, as an enterprise of demystification.
It seems that this is the sole moment in Deleuze's published work where he uses the term 'sadden' in a positive manner, as something desirable, and this is an indication of the strength by which he considers philosophy, in this early sense, as an exercise in naturalism in the sense that Gilles deleuze architecture uses this term, that is, as an attack on all forms of mystification. Commenting on Lucretius, Deleuze makes the following, extremely similar, remark:.
The speculative object and the practical object of philosophy as Naturalism, gilles deleuze architecture, science and pleasure, gilles deleuze architecture, coincide on this point: To the como começar uma apresentação de slides 'what is the use of philosophy?
Deleuze's philosophical naturalism is thus critical, Spinozist and Nietzschean: Naturalism must not here be understood as opposed to a cosmopolitanism, gilles deleuze architecture constructivism, Deleuze tells us. Mythology, in the sense of these texts, is the eternal danger for the operation of thought. Deleuze summarises this immanent threat within thought cf. Philosophy could have taken up the problem with its own means and with the necessary modesty, by considering the fact that stupidity is never that of others but the object of a properly transcendental question: From Difference and Repetition onwards, Deleuze, while maintaining this critical aspect for philosophy, develops a thorough-going constructivist view which manifests itself in the final collaboration between Deleuze and Guattari, What is Philosophy?
This text involves arguments about three central notions: As we have seen, a certain doctrine of empiricist constructivism runs through Deleuze's work from the gilles deleuze architecture, and on a number of levels. In What is Philosophy? The philosopher's only business is concepts, Deleuze and Guattari tell us, and the concept belongs only to philosophy WP This is already clear when we consider Deleuze's writings on the arts, which he considers to be philosophical see 6 above.
The fortunes of the concept, due to lack of attention by philosophers, have fallen, to the point at which even marketing has taken hold of it, in, "the general movement that replaced Critique gilles deleuze architecture sales promotion.
A concept is distinctly featured. It is a multiplicity, not in itself a single thing, but an assemblage of components which must retain coherence with the others for the concept to remain itself in this sense, it closely resembles the Spinozist body.
These components are singularities: Each concept also has a relationship to other concepts by way of the similar problems that they address, and by having similar component elements, and Deleuze and Guattari describe their relations by the use of the term vibration WP Above all, however, the concept must not be confused with the proposition, as in logic WP ff.
There is no necessary relation between concepts, nor is there any given way of relating. Neither does the concept have a reference, in the way that a proposition does. Rather, it is intensive and expresses the virtual existence of an event in thought: Finally, a concept has no relationship to truth, which is an external determination, or presupposition, that places thought at the service of the dogmatic image of thought: As such, concepts act, they are affective, rather than significatory, or expressive of the contents of ideas.
The question of presuppositions, already dealt with via the concept of the image of thought see 4 d aboveis examined in much greater depth by Deleuze and Guattari in What is Philosophy? Indeed, their answer involves two new concepts, the conceptual personae, and the plane of immanence. Conceptual personae WP ch. They are to be confused with neither psycho-social types WP 67nor with the philosophers themselves WP 64but are like concepts created.
Deleuze and Guattari argue that conceptual personae, while often only implicit in philosophy, are decisive for understanding the significance of concepts. To take again Descartes' cogito, the implicit conceptual persona is the idiot, the regular person, uneducated, untrained in philosophy, potentially betrayed by their senses at every turn, and yet, able to have perfectly clear and distinct knowledge of themselves, through the certainty of the 'I think, therefore I am', gilles deleuze architecture.
Also mentioned are Nietzsche's famous personae, both sympathetic and anti-pathetic: Zarathustra, the last man, Dionysus, the Crucified, Socrates, and so forth, gilles deleuze architecture. Conceptual personae are, for Deleuze and Guattari, internal, non-philosophical preconditions for the practice of creating concepts. These personae, in turn, are related to the plane of immanence. This concept has clear and significant resonances with other important elements of Deleuze's thought, above all with his monist ontology of forces, and with his practical emphasis on Nietzsche and Spinoza's ethics as non-transcendental.
The plane of immanence WP ch. Each time that a transcendent is raised Descartes' cogito, Plato's ideas, Kant's categoriesthought is arrested, and philosophy is placed at the service of dominant ideas. For Deleuze and Guattari, all of these instances of the transcendental stem from the same problem: For thought to exist, for concepts to be formed and then given body through conceptual personae, they must operate immanently, without the rule of a "Something" that organises or stratifies the plane of immanence.
Concepts exist on the plane of immanence, and each philosopher, Deleuze and Guattari tell us, must create such a plane. The other main concern of What is Philosophy? Deleuze and Guattari argue that each discipline o que e administrar the activity of thought, and that in each case it is a matter of creation.
What differs is the sphere of creation and the manner in which it is populated. Art is concerned with the creation of percepts and affects WPwhich are together sensation. Percepts are not perceptions, in that they do not refer to a perceiver, gilles deleuze architecture, and neither are affects the feelings or affections of someone.
Just as we saw with concepts, affects and percepts are independent beings which exist outside of the experience of a thinker, and have no reference to a state of affairs. Deleuze and Guattari write: The situation with science is similar. Science is the activity of thought that creates functions. These functions, in contrast to concepts, are propositional WPand form the fragments from which science is able to piece together a kind of makeshift language, one which however, does not gilles deleuze architecture any prior relation to truth, any more than philosophy does.
Functions have meaning in creating a referential point of view, for Deleuze and Guattari, that is, in creating a basis from which things can be measured. As such, the first great functions are those such as absolute zero Kelvin, the speed of light etc. The plane of reference, again immanent to the functions that populate it, gains consistency through the strength and effectiveness of its functions. Also presupposed by science, in What is Philosophy?
The figure of the partial observer in science, as in philosophy, is frequently implicit, and exists to give direction to functions: The partial observer in this case would be a figure that makes certain functions in particular take shape and gain force regarding a certain phenomena, such as the relation of the sun to the moon: Below is a list of Deleuze's main works, in order of their original publication in French.
Indicated in parentheses after the original publication date are the initials by which each text is referred to above. In addition to gilles deleuze architecture following, another resources seem particularly useful gilles deleuze architecture those not familiar with Deleuze: Parnet suggests a topic for each letter of the alphabet, and Deleuze's answers, in most cases, are both substantial and revealing.
The video set is available to purchase in French. A good text that deals systematically with the whole body of Deleuze's work, that is also quite easy to read, is the Rajchman gilles deleuze architecture.
Regarding Capitalism and Schizophreniathere are a number of commentaries available; the Massumi text is perhaps the best known and most consistent, although the general level of all secondary texts in this area is very difficult. The Clamour of Beingby Gilles deleuze architecture Baidou is a controversial interpretation of Deleuze's work, particularly his ontology, from the perspective of another important French gilles deleuze architecture who knew Deleuze.
Michel Foucault's article, "Theatricum Philosophicum," is also a significant and well-known interpretation of Difference and Repetition and The Logic of Sense. The author of this article is anonymous. The IEP is actively seeking an author who will write a replacement article. Gilles Deleuze — Deleuze is a key figure in postmodern French philosophy.
Early Reflections - Naturalism "What is Philosophy? Biography Gilles Deleuze was born in the 17th arrondisment of Paris, a district that, excepting periods in his youth, he lived in for the whole of his gilles deleuze architecture. The History Of Philosophy Deleuze's whole intellectual trajectory can be traced by his shifting relationship to the history of philosophy.
The first concerns a politics of the tradition: D 13 This hegemony of thought recurrently comes under attack later in Deleuze's career, notably in What is Philosophy? N Perhaps such a method does not seem extremely creative, or perhaps only in a relatively passive sense.
Kant and Leibniz Deleuze's book on Kanthis third publication in general conforms with the standards of an academic philosophical study. Deleuze himself, later reflecting on Kant's Critical Philosophydistinguishes it from the other, more constructivist historical studies: N 6 There are, however, some distinctively creative elements even to this apparently sober study, which reflect Deleuze's general interests, two in particular.
Inovações tecnologicas na engenharia civil Deleuze himself locates in Kant the development of the concept of the transcendental at the root of modern philosophy DRhe is quick to insist that, even as transcendental faculties in Kant, understanding, reason and imagination act gilles deleuze architecture in an immanent fashion to achieve their own ends: Gilles deleuze architecture ; NP 91 Deleuze, then, insists on the critical activity of Kant's philosophy as not only a critique of reason used wrongly, but specifies this critique in pragmatic and empiricist terms.
In fact, one of the more astonishing claims that Deleuze makes is that the one cannot be understood properly without the other: FLB 39; translation altered How is such a statement to be demonstrated? N 88; WP 7 One can see that such simbolo psicologia teclado definition of empiricism differs sharply, at least apparently, from the traditional understanding canonised by Anglo-American histories of philosophy.
Hume Deleuze's first publication, Empiricism and Subjectivity is a book about David Humewho is generally considered the foremost and most rigorous British empiricist, according to the general 'sense-data' model described above. Deleuze develops this argument by asserting precisely the opposite of the traditional reading of Hume: ES Kant proposed transcendental operations of histórico de pesquisa do google in order to make experience possible, criticising Hume for thinking that we could have unified knowledge of an empirical gilles deleuze architecture that we only passively receive.
The mind, affected by the natural principle of association, becomes human nature, from the ground up: ES 29 These associations account not only for experience in the basic sense, but up to the highest level of social and cultural life: Spinoza While Hume may not be a contentious name to link with a deepened empiricism, Benedict de Spinoza certainly is.
Spinoza is, for me, the 'prince' of philosophers. EPS 11 Spinoza is the Christ of philosophers, and the greatest philosophers are hardly more than apostles who distance themselves from or draw near to this mystery. N Spinoza's greatness for Deleuze comes precisely from his development of a philosophy based on the two features of empiricism discussed above.
The unity of the ontological and the ethical is crucial, for Deleuze, in understanding Spinoza, that is: Deleuze considers there to be three primary theoretico-practical points in the Ethics: For Deleuze, Spinoza, d enounces all the falsifications of life, all the values in gilles deleuze architecture name of which we disparage life.
In the preface to the English translation of Expressionism in Philosophyhe writes: Nietzsche Aside from Spinoza, Nietzsche is the most important philosopher for Deleuze. Deleuze's Central Empiricist Concepts While Deleuze often refers to the instituto de engenharia de lisboa concepts of empiricism as classically gilles deleuze architecture by Hume in the Treatise association, habituation, convention etc.
Deleuze repeatedly insists that philosophy can only be done well if it approaches the immanent conditions of that which it is trying to think; this is to say that all thought, in order to have any real force, must not work by setting up trancendentals, but by creating movement and consequences: Difference And Repetition Difference and Repetition is without doubt Deleuze's most significant book gilles deleuze architecture a traditional academic style, and proposes the most central of his disruptions to the canonical traditions of philosophy.
Difference-in-itself Deleuze's main aim in Difference and Repetition is a creative elaboration of these two concepts, but it essentially precedes by way of a gilles deleuze architecture of Western philosophy. His central thesis is, That identity not be first, that it exist as a principle but as a second principle, as a principle become; that it revolve around the Different: DR 41 From Plato DR to Heidegger DRgilles deleuze architecture, Deleuze argues, difference has not been accepted on its own, but only after being understood with reference to self-identical objects, which makes difference a difference between.
Deleuze argues that this is a dead end which makes, identity the sufficient condition for difference to exist and be thought, gilles deleuze architecture.
DR While offering a philosophical tool that sees difference at the heart of being, the process of the gilles deleuze architecture removes this affirmation as its most essential step.
DR Finally, regarding ethics, Deleuze argues that an ontology based on the negative makes of ethical affirmation a secondary, derived possibility: Repetition and Time For Deleuze, the central stake in the consideration of repetition is time. DR ; PS passim In this second model of time, repetition thus has an active sense in line with the synthesis, since it repeats something, in the memory, that did not exist before - this does not save it, however, from being an operation of identity, gilles deleuze architecture, nonetheless.
DR ; KCP viii-ix Deleuze insists that both of these models of time press repetition into the service of the identical, and make it a secondary process with regards to time. The Image of Thought Chapter three of Difference and Repetition provides a novel approach to ncomputing software for windows 7 important question in philosophy, the problem of presuppositions. An example is Descartes' celebrated phrase at the beginning of the Discourse on the Method: These features, crush thought under an image which is that of the Same and the Similar in representation, but profoundly betrays what it means to think and alienates the two powers of difference and repetition, of philosophical commencement and recommencement.
DR It is this element, in Difference and Repetitionthat founds Deleuze's most serious criticism of the traditional image of thought: The other critical angle Deleuze supplies here is related to the first, and derives from Nietzsche's critique of Western thought: LS 3 As we saw above regarding Hegel, the real point of concern is that this image of thought is in the service of practical, political and moral forces, it is not simply a matter of philosophy, in segregation from the rest of the world.
As a result, the relationship of philosophy to thought must have two correlative aspects, Deleuze argues: Capitalism And Schizophrenia - Deleuze And Guattari The collaborative texts of Deleuze and Felix Guattari, particularly the two volumes of Capitalism and Schizophreniagilles deleuze architecture, are outside of the scope of the current article see the Deleuze and Guattari entry in this encyclopaedia, forthcoming.
Literature, Cinema, Painting Deleuze's work on the arts, he never ceases to remind the reader, are not to be understood as literary criticism, film or art theory. Talking of the gilles deleuze architecture, during which he wrote almost exclusively on the arts, he states the following: N This accords with the aims of Deleuze's empiricism see 3 aboveto understand philosophy as an encounter with a work, philosophical or artistic, an object, a person out of which "non-pre-existent concepts," DR vii can be created.
Regarding his books on cinema, he is even more explicit: N 58; C2 All of Deleuze's work on artists can be assembled under the rubric of the creation of new philosophical concepts that relate specifically to the work at hand, yet which also link these works with others more generally. Literature Deleuze wrote extensively on literature throughout his career. Marcel Proust It is quite easy, if one wishes to attach a philosophical point of view to Marcel Proust's work, to see it as a phenomenology of memory and perception, in which his famous text In Search of Lost Time would be oriented towards an understanding of what underlies and gives substance to experience and memory.
AO 68 Rather than memory, the central question of the Searchbeing based within the subject, and as the product of certain transcendental operations, it is a creation of something which did not exist before by way of an original, each-time unique, style of interpretation for experiences PS Deleuze uses the term 'anti-logos' on the grounds that Proust, as he argues, refuses the representational model of experience central to Western philosophy: PS Gilles deleuze architecture contrast, Deleuze characterises the Search as a recasting of thought: Leopold von Sacher-masoch Masoch features in a few of Deleuze's books K ; Dbut most significantly in his long study "Coldness and Cruelty".
M In "Coldness and Cruelty", Deleuze also elaborates a critique of Freud that points in the direction of Anti-Oedipusalthough clearly more limited in scope. K 45 In contrast, Deleuze and Guattari read Kafka as a proponent of the immanence of desire. Gibbs works largely but not exclusively with Tomkins.
Ideational representatives could be repressed without too much transformation, but for affects it was a different story. What happens to them in repression, and how do they return? One more recent and very clear account of Freud and Tomkins and affect, especially of drives and affect, is found in this excellent article by Gilles deleuze architecture McIlWaine. Of course, many thinkers on affect are interested in a slightly different take to that of psychoanalysis.
Affect—a basic summary of approaches
Of course, this power associated with gilles deleuze architecture immediately suggests a political sobre a violência hannah arendt download to affect, a politics as appropriate to everyday life as it is to larger political events.
Indeed, it links the shifting play of capacities and capabilities to the individual tolerance or not of intensities on the one hand, and to an interlinked general world on the other. This is where things get complicated, however. Although I think this just adds to our understanding. For Deleuze and Guattari, affects, as becomings and mutual contagions, economia da africa oriental gilles deleuze architecture independent of emotion or feeling.
Writing about the work of painter Francis Bacon, Deleuze writes —. The Logic of Sensation: This is completely unnecessary although very much explainable via a multi-disciplinary theory of affect—that is, by looking at the different affective investments in certain approaches to affect.
In any case, this only emphasises the fact that we need to know which definition of affect we are taking up at any given moment. And obviously, although I am about to head to a relatorio de estagio odontologia, if broader, understanding of affect, I also think that affect studies works better as an appropriately multiple assemblage, rather than a discipline.
For this I return to Deleuze, and of course Massumi. Although the approach to affect as emotion, feeling or pleasure has value, Deleuze above suggests something very different—a possible politics that takes into account instinct, in the sense of filling the flesh. Affect is intensities coming together, moving each other, transforming and translating under or beyond meaning, beyond semantic or simply fixed systems, or cognitions, even emotions.
This is not to denigrate contas a pagar ea receber or emotions or any of these and Massumi writes a lot on feeling. In fact, it gives more precision to our understanding of the broader contexts and dynamisms for all of them.
Affect, as intensity, is of a different order to personal emotion. As processual as it is precessual, affect inhabits the gilles deleuze architecture. It is pre- and postcontextual, pre- and postpersonal, an excess of continuity invested only in the ongoing: Self-continuity across the gaps. Impersonal affect is the connecting thread of experience.
It is the invisible glue that holds the world together. The world-glue of event of an autonomy of event-connection continuing across its own serialized capture in context. Intensity arises as the infinity of real relations, and their real potentials, actualize in specific events and processes.
For example, there is the shifting intensity in the infinite number of possible connections between neurons, just to name one part of the world in which affect resides.
Over time, gilles deleuze architecture, this infinity actualizes as specific connections mixed in with the broader connections of the world beyond neurons that is, as thoughts. These connections are never quite removed from their potential for infinite other connections. In short, affect is the emergence of actual relations on the one hand, and their falling back into virtual relations relational potential on the other.
The entire complex situation is summed up as follows in gilles deleuze architecture unapologetically long quote, because it is here that emotions and cognitions are situated in the broader trade of intensities:. Emergence, once again, is a two-sided coin: What is being termed affect in this essay is precisely this two-sidedness, the simultaneous participation of the virtual in the actual and the actual in the virtual, as one arises from and returns to the other. Affect is this two-sidedness as seen from the side of the actual thing, as couched in its perceptions and cognitions.
Affect is the virtual as point of view, provided the visual metaphor is used guardedly. For affect is synesthetic, implying a participation of the senses in each other: Tactility and vision being the most obvious but by no means the only examples: Affects are virtual synesthetic perspectives anchored in functionally limited by the actually existing, particular things that embody them.
The autonomy of affect is its participation in the virtual. Its autonomy is its openness. Affect is autonomous to the degree to gilles deleuze architecture it escapes confinement in the particular body whose vitality [Stern again], or potential for interaction, it is. Formed, qualified, situated perceptions and cognitions fulfilling functions of actual connection or blockage are the capture and closure of affect.
Emotion is the most intense most contracted expression of that capture — and of the fact that something has always and again escaped. Something remains unactualized, inseparable from but unassimilable to any particular, functionally anchored perspective. If there were no escape, no excess or remainder, no fade-out to infinity, the universe would be without potential, pure entropy, gilles deleuze architecture.
Actually existing, structured things live in and through that which escapes them. Their autonomy is the autonomy of affect [so affect is also the autonomy of things — that which gives them autonomy]. This autonomy is not, as some people interpret it, to say that affect runs around by itself, independent of us and everything we do.
Affect is central, before and after our assumptions of stability, subject or object. As Deleuze notes in The Fold —. There exists only what is perceived….
Gilles Deleuze (1925–1995)
Even perception comes after affect. Perception is an aftereffect of affect. Smith,in Duffy: Although affect comes before bodies, constituting them perhaps in an ongoing manner, insofar as they are alive perhaps, it also inhabits them, if as a passage through them.
Just as importantly, Thacker notes that the more complex a body, the more we might say it is able to sustain the intensity of relational autonomies, gilles deleuze architecture more complex the affects. Thacker also points to the kind of ethics involved—an ethics of good or bad forms of composition.
And this might also be what a well-composed, and open concept is meant to assist. Crucially, this is not just about what actually happens. When you affect something, you are at the same time opening yourself up to being affected in turn, and in a slightly different way than you might have been the moment before.
You have made a transition, however slight. You have stepped over a threshold. And actually these transitions are very important to us—our feeling resenha marley e eu how much capacity we have to do things, and what those things might be, as this feeling changes from moment to moment is crucial, gilles deleuze architecture.
A ny particular emotion only draws on a little bit of this. It only draws on a limited selection of memories and only activates certain reflexes or tendencies, for example. No one emotional gilles deleuze architecture can encompass all the depth and breadth of our experiencing of experiencing — all the ways our experience redoubles itself.
The same thing could be said for conscious thought. So when we feel a particular emotion or think a particular thought, where have all the other memories, habits, tendencies gone that might have come at the point? Affect as a whole, then, is the virtual co-presence of potentials. Massumi in Zournazi interview.